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Common Product Related Questions

  • Why do I need to use sharp teeth on an earthing clamp?

    Newson Gale clamps utilize Tungsten Carbide Teeth. Tungsten carbide is one of the hardest materials in use in industry today and when used in combination with a well designed clamp spring, has the capability to continuously bite through coatings, rust or product deposits that a basic alligator clip or welding clamp may struggle with.

  • Why use 4 mm^2 not 16 mm^2 cable?

    IEC TS 60079-32-1,13.4.1 states ‘Where wire conductors are used, the minimum size of the bonding or earthing wire is dictated by mechanical strength, not by its current-carrying capacity. Stranded or braided wires should be used for bonding wires that will be connected and disconnected frequently.‘

  • Why use steel cable and not copper?

    If using a single core earthing clamp, it is important that the mechanical strength of the cable is maintained. IEC TS 60079-14 states ‘Conductors and connections shall be durable, flexible and of sufficient mechanical strength to withstand in-service movement. Mechanical strength of the conductor shall be equivalent to at least 4 mm2 copper, or be part of a flexible cabling system incorporating a monitoring and control system.’ Copper can work hardened and premature failure of the cable cores can occur and if not using a monitored system could pose a risk.

  • What is Intrinsic Safety (I.S)?

    An intrinsically safe circuit is a circuit in which a spark or a thermal effect produced in certain conditions, which include normal operation and specified fault conditions, is not capable of causing ignition of a given explosive atmosphere.

  • What is simple apparatus?

    Simple apparatus is an electrical component or combination of components of simple construction with well-defined electrical parameters and which is compatible with the intrinsic safety of the circuit in which it is used.

  • Why green cable and not green & yellow?

    Green and yellow cable is used to identify protective earth circuits in electrical installations. Using a solid green sheath identifies the cable as a static earth and therefore is easily identifiable between electrical earthing and static earthing.

  • What is different about Newson Gale cables?

    Newson Gale Cen-Stat cable are manufactured with a Hytrel sheath. Hytrel has good properties against chemical attack and mechanical impacts making it well suited to the operating environments in which the cable is installed. The Hytrel cable also contains static dissipative and ultraviolet protection additives as part of the overall compound to assist the areas it may be used in.

  • Why do we need two ground connections?

    Newson Gale Earth-Rite and Bond-Rite grounding systems are designed to have two ground connections (G1 and G2) that are wired to a verifiable earth point via an earth bar/tab.

    If both of the ground connections are wired to one stud on an earth bar/tape then there is always the possibility of the stud being physically broken away from the earth bar/tape. However, if G1 and G2 are still connected to the same stud that has broken away the ground loop connection is still intact however it is not connected to the verifiable earth point and therefore is not dissipating static to earth. This is a very unsafe situation.

    Because of this reason and others found by many years of field experience Newson Gale state that the G1 and G2 ground connections must be mounted to separate studs and apart on the earth bar/tape. Then if either G1 or G2 connections come off the earth bar/tape the ground loop monitoring system will detect this and go Non Permissive, this means the relay output will change state and the flashing Green LEDs will change to the single Red LED being ON. This will protect the process being grounded.

    This wiring method provides the safest installation of any static grounding system available anywhere in the world.

Static Earthing Basics

  • What is static earthing?

    Grounding (or Earthing) is the best and safest way to discharge built-up static charge. To ground an object is to connect it to the earth via a grounding rod or electrode stuck in the ground. Grounding drains the static charges away as they are produced, removing excess charge by transferring electrons between the object and the earth. In this case, conductive metal materials or objects are connected to the earth via wires, clips, cables, and clamps.

  • What is static grounding?

    Grounding (or Earthing) is the best and safest way to discharge built-up static charge. To ground an object is to connect it to the earth via a grounding rod or electrode stuck in the ground. Grounding drains the static charges away as they are produced, removing excess charge by transferring electrons between the object and the earth. In this case, conductive metal materials or objects are connected to the earth via wires, clips, cables, and clamps.

  • What is the difference between Earthing and Bonding?

    Bonding and grounding are effective methods for managing and reducing static electricity and thus minimizing the possibility of electrostatic sparks or ignition. The difference between the two is that bonding connects two objects together to equalise the charge on each, while grounding connects an object with the earth. Bonding connects two or more pieces of conductive equipment together using wires, cables, or other connecters in order to equalize their static charge.

Static Electricity Basics

  • How does a static charge accumulate?

    Static electricity is the build-up of electrical charge on an object. This charge can cause objects to be attracted to one another. Socks fresh out of the dryer that cling together are a good example of this attraction in action. Specifically, static cling is an attraction between two objects with opposite electrical charges, one positive and one negative. Static electricity can be created by rubbing one object against another object. This is because the rubbing releases negative charges, called electrons, which can build up on one object to produce a static charge. For example, when you shuffle your feet across a carpet, electrons can transfer onto you, building up a static charge on your skin. You can suddenly discharge the static charge as a shock when you touch a friend or some objects. Whereas objects that have opposite charges are attracted to one another (such as clingy, freshly dried socks), objects that have the same charge repel.

  • What is charge accumulation?

    Static electricity is the build-up of electrical charge on an object. This charge can cause objects to be attracted to one another. Socks fresh out of the dryer that cling together are a good example of this attraction in action. Specifically, static cling is an attraction between two objects with opposite electrical charges, one positive and one negative. Static electricity can be created by rubbing one object against another object. This is because the rubbing releases negative charges, called electrons, which can build up on one object to produce a static charge. For example, when you shuffle your feet across a carpet, electrons can transfer onto you, building up a static charge on your skin. You can suddenly discharge the static charge as a shock when you touch a friend or some objects. Whereas objects that have opposite charges are attracted to one another (such as clingy, freshly dried socks), objects that have the same charge repel.

  • What happens to the charges to make a static charge build up?

    Static electricity is the build-up of electrical charge on an object. This charge can cause objects to be attracted to one another. Socks fresh out of the dryer that cling together are a good example of this attraction in action. Specifically, static cling is an attraction between two objects with opposite electrical charges, one positive and one negative. Static electricity can be created by rubbing one object against another object. This is because the rubbing releases negative charges, called electrons, which can build up on one object to produce a static charge. For example, when you shuffle your feet across a carpet, electrons can transfer onto you, building up a static charge on your skin. You can suddenly discharge the static charge as a shock when you touch a friend or some objects. Whereas objects that have opposite charges are attracted to one another (such as clingy, freshly dried socks), objects that have the same charge repel.

  • What are the effects of static electricity?

    These are some examples of problems associated with static:

    • It is a nuisance when dust and dirt are attracted to insulators such as TV screens and computer monitors.
    • It is a nuisance when clothes made from synthetic materials cling to each other and to the body, especially just after they’ve been in a tumble dryer.

    Static electricity can build up in clouds. This can cause a huge spark to form between the ground and the cloud. This causes lightning – a flow of charge through the atmosphere.

    • It is dangerous when there are flammable gases or a high concentration of oxygen. A spark could ignite the gases and cause an explosion.
    • It is dangerous when you touch something with a large electric charge on it. The charge will flow through your body causing an electric shock. This could cause burns or even stop your heart. A person could die from an electric shock.

    Refuelling aircraft and tankers also pose a particular danger. If the fuel passing along the hose to the vehicle could build up a static charge, a resulting spark might ignite the fuel.

  • Is static electricity harmful to humans?

    The best-known effect of static on people, and the only proven effect in the opinion of many scientists, is that of the shock from a spark discharge. This usually occurs when a charged person touches a grounded object or comes into contact with another person who is at a different potential. Although this phenomenon is well known, there are no well-defined ranges for what level of body voltage will result in discharges that can be felt.

    Few people, however, will notice discharges at voltages lower than about 1000 V. Most people will start to feel an unpleasant effect around 2000 V. Almost everyone will complain when exposed to discharges at voltages above 3000 V. However, it’s the secondary hazard of electrostatic sparking in an explosive/dangerous environment which could be fatal to humans.

  • What are the major precautions against static electric?

    Here are some effective tips to make sure that risks caused by static electricity are minimized:

    • Avoid wearing rubber-soled footwear: Rubber is an excellent insulator, and so wearing rubber-soled shoes may create a significant amount of static in your body.
    • Apply grounding in your home appliances: Some of the devices in your house may collect static electricity over time, if there’s no way to discharge them. Make sure that your appliances have a grounding mechanism in order to release the excess static.
    • Ground yourself: If you think you may be carrying some static electricity, touch an inert metal object to discharge the electricity.
    • Keep indoor air humid: Dry air increases the risk of static electricity build-up in your home. The best way to address this is to keep the relative humidity above 30%. A humidifier may do the trick.
    • Keep skin moisturized: If your skin is dry, it has a higher likelihood of developing static electricity. You may apply lotion or moisturizer on your hands and skin.
  • 5 hazards of static electricity are ….
    1. Electrostatic sparks may have enough energy to produce electric shocks
    2. Cause electronic damage
    3. Soil mechanical components
    4. Disrupt production processes
    5. Generate fires and explosions

    Moreover, it’s a nuisance which can be avoided most of the times with proper earthing and bonding solutions.

  • Static electricity hazards and prevention
    1. Electrostatic sparks may have enough energy to produce electric shocks
    2. Cause electronic damage
    3. Soil mechanical components
    4. Disrupt production processes
    5. Generate fires and explosions

    Moreover, it’s a nuisance which can be avoided most of the times with proper earthing and bonding solutions.

  • How can the build-up of electrostatic charge be prevented?

    Touching a non-conductor like a wooden door before you touch the metal doorknob can help reduce the shock, but the best way for prevention is to drain off all your charges by directly touching the conductor with something in between you and the grounding item.

    The process of earthing and bonding using appropriate earthing solution products can prevent the build-up of electrostatic charge.

  • What are the sources of static electricity?

    We know that all objects are made up of atoms and atoms are composed of protons, electrons and neutrons. The protons are positively charged, the electrons are negatively charged, and the neutrons are neutral. Therefore, all things are made up of charges. Opposite charges attract each other (negative to positive). Like charges repel each other (positive to positive or negative to negative). Most of the time positive and negative charges are balanced in an object, which makes that object neutral as is the case of molecules.

    Static electricity is the result of an imbalance between negative and positive charges in an object. These charges can build up on the surface of an object until they find a way to be released or discharged. Rubbing certain materials against one another can transfer negative charges, or electrons. For example, if you rub your shoe on the carpet, your body collects extra electrons from the rug. The electrons cling to your body until they can be released as the case when you touch a metal door handle.

    “… The phenomenon of static electricity requires a separation of positive and negative charges. When two materials are in contact, electrons may move from one material to the other, which leaves an excess of positive charge on one material, and an equal negative charge on the other. When the materials are separated, they retain this charge imbalance…”

  • Static Electricity & Ignition Hazards in Industry
    1. Electrostatic sparks may have enough energy to produce electric shocks
    2. Cause electronic damage
    3. Soil mechanical components
    4. Disrupt production processes
    5. Generate fires and explosions

    Moreover, it’s a nuisance which can be avoided most of the times with proper earthing and bonding solutions.

  • How is static electricity used in industry?

    Although dangerous and necessary to avoid in many situations, Static electricity has many practical applications. Some examples are:

    • Electrostatic precipitators remove the smoke from waste gases before they pass out of the chimneys in power stations that burn fossil fuels. In a home HVAC system, precipitators remove polluting particles, allergens, and irritants.
    • Inkjet photocopiers and printers use static electricity to guide a minute jet of ink to the page’s precise position.
    • Laser printers and photocopiers using the xerographic process.
    • The Van de Graaff – electrostatic – generator is applied in nuclear physics research.
  • What is the most common cause of industrial fires?

    1. Combustible dust

    Often overlooked, and highly deadly, combustible dust is a major cause of fire in food manufacturing, woodworking, chemical manufacturing, metalworking, pharmaceuticals, and just about every other industry you can name. The reason is that just about everything, including food, dyes, chemicals, and metals — even materials that aren’t fire risks in larger pieces — has the potential to be combustible in dust form and these explosions aren’t easy to contain.

    In the typical incident, a small fire will result from combustible material coming into contact with an ignition source. This may be a dust explosion, but it doesn’t have to be. In fact, it could be most any other type of explosion on this list.  However, this small explosion isn’t the problem. The problem is what happens next. If there’s dust in the area, the primary explosion will cause that dust to become airborne. Then, the dust cloud itself can ignite, causing a secondary explosion that can be many times the size and severity of the primary explosion. If enough dust has accumulated, these secondary explosions have the potential to bring down entire facilities, causing immense damage and fatalities.

    2. Hot work

    Hot work is one of the leading causes of industrial fires across all industries.

    Although hot work is commonly equated with welding and torch cutting, there are many other activities — including brazing, burning, heating, and soldering — that pose a fire hazard. This is because the sparks and molten material, which reach temperatures greater than 1000°F, can easily travel more than 35 feet.

    3. Flammable liquids and gases

    These fires, which often occur at chemical plants, can be disastrous. There is certainly some danger inherent in any work involving flammable liquids and gasses,

    4. Equipment and machinery

    Faulty equipment and machinery are also major causes of industrial fires.

    Heating and hot work equipment are typically the biggest problems here — in particular, furnaces that aren’t properly installed, operated, and maintained. In addition, any mechanical equipment can become a fire hazard because of friction between the moving parts.

    What may surprise you is that even seemingly innocuous equipment can be a hazard under the right circumstances. And, in many cases, the equipment least likely to be thought of as a fire risk turns out to be the biggest problem. This is because companies may not recognize the risk and therefore won’t take the necessary precautions.

    5. Electrical hazards

    Electrical fires are one of the top five causes of fires in manufacturing plants. Here a non-exhaustive list of specific electrical hazards:

    • Wiring that is exposed or not up to code
    • Overloaded outlets
    • Extension cords
    • Overloaded circuits
    • Static discharge

    The damage caused by these fires can quickly compound things thanks to several of the other items on this list. Any of the above hazards can cause a spark, which can serve as an ignition source for combustible dust, as well as flammable liquids and gasses.

  • What are the 5 hazards most found in an industrial setting that can lead to an explosion. Why?

    1. Combustible dust

    Often overlooked, and highly deadly, combustible dust is a major cause of fire in food manufacturing, woodworking, chemical manufacturing, metalworking, pharmaceuticals, and just about every other industry you can name. The reason is that just about everything, including food, dyes, chemicals, and metals — even materials that aren’t fire risks in larger pieces — has the potential to be combustible in dust form.

    And these explosions aren’t easy to contain. In the typical incident, a small fire will result from combustible material coming into contact with an ignition source. This may be a dust explosion, but it doesn’t have to be. In fact, it could be most any other type of explosion on this list.
    However, this small explosion isn’t the problem. The problem is what happens next.

    If there’s dust in the area, the primary explosion will cause that dust to become airborne. Then, the dust cloud itself can ignite, causing a secondary explosion that can be many times the size and severity of the primary explosion. If enough dust has accumulated, these secondary explosions have the potential to bring down entire facilities, causing immense damage and fatalities.

    2. Hot work

    Hot work is one of the leading causes of industrial fires across all industries.

    Although hot work is commonly equated with welding and torch cutting, there are many other activities — including brazing, burning, heating, and soldering — that pose a fire hazard. This is because the sparks and molten material, which reach temperatures greater than 1000°F, can easily travel more than 35 feet.

    3. Flammable liquids and gases

    These fires, which often occur at chemical plants, can be disastrous. There is certainly some danger inherent in any work involving flammable liquids and gases,

    4. Equipment and machinery

    Faulty equipment and machinery are also major causes of industrial fires.

    Heating and hot work equipment are typically the biggest problems here — in particular, furnaces that aren’t properly installed, operated, and maintained. In addition, any mechanical equipment can become a fire hazard because of friction between the moving parts.

    What may surprise you is that even seemingly innocuous equipment can be a hazard under the right circumstances. And, in many cases, the equipment least likely to be thought of as a fire risk turns out to be the biggest problem. This is because companies may not recognize the risk and therefore won’t take the necessary precautions.

    5. Electrical hazards

    Electrical fires are one of the top five causes of fires in manufacturing plants. Here a non-exhaustive list of specific electrical hazards:

    • Wiring that is exposed or not up to code
    • Overloaded outlets
    • Extension cords
    • Overloaded circuits
    • Static discharge

    The damage caused by these fires can quickly compound thanks to several of the other items on this list. Any of the above hazards can cause a spark, which can serve as an ignition source for combustible dust, as well as flammable liquids and gases.

     

  • What are examples of ignition sources?

    Ignition sources may be:

    • Flames
    • Direct fired space and process heating
    • Use of cigarettes/matches etc.
    • Cutting and welding flames
    • Hot surfaces
    • Heated process vessels such as dryers and furnaces
    • Hot process vessels
    • Space heating equipment
  • What is the most common fire ignition source?

    Welding and cutting with torches are also common ignition sources for fires and many times occur sometime after the welding or cutting operation is over. Sparks or hot slag on a combustible surface may smoulder for some time before igniting into open flame.

  • Can static electricity ignite flammable agents?

    Yes, Sparks are responsible for most industrial fires and explosions as a result of static electricity.

    A spark is a discharge of static electricity between two conductors. Spark discharges occur when the charges accumulated on conductive objects create an electric field that exceeds the ambient atmosphere’s electric strength.

    The energy liberated in a static electricity discharge varies over a broad range. The energy transfer in a spark discharge may reach values up to 10,000 mJ. A value of 0.2 mJ may pose an ignition hazard, although this low spark energy is frequently below the threshold of human auditory and visual perception. The amount of charge that an object accumulates depends on its storage capacity. A conductive item is incapable of retaining a significant amount of electrostatic charge when it is grounded. The voltage designates the charge strength. A human body can reach 10,000 V or more in a dry environment and a few hundred volts in a wet environment.

    There are other discharges, with the type of discharge being influenced by the characteristics of the materials involved – brush discharge, propagating brush discharge, cone discharge, and corona discharge. These discharges have different energy transfer capabilities and ignitability properties, which may be higher than the threshold ignition point of many flammable gases.

  • Bonding and Grounding to Avoid Sparks

    One effective way of preventing sparks is by connecting all objects to a conductor (bonding) and to the earth (grounding).

    Bonding is a secure joining of metallic parts that form an electrically conductive path, dropping their voltage difference to near zero. Yet, there may be a voltage difference relative to the ground or another object. Bonding prevents sparks from jumping between two things that are at the same potential.

    Grounding is a connection between the objects and the earth, allowing the discharge of electrostatic electricity to the ground.
    In addition to facilities, people sometimes need to be grounded. Personnel grounding employs specialized flooring and grounding fabrications worn on the wrists or over the shoes.

  • What is incendive spark?

    A spark of sufficient temperature and energy to ignite a flammable gas mixed with the right proportion of air.

  • Ignition Hazards

    These include flammable gases, vapors, liquids, aerosols, dusts and their mixtures. When mixed with air, these substances can form a potentially explosive atmosphere. All that is needed to trigger an explosion is an effective ignition source.

  • What are three sources of ignition?

    Sources of ignition include electrical sparks, static electricity, naked flames, hot surfaces, impact, friction, etc.

  • What is electrostatic ignition?

    Electrostatic discharges can ignite the flammable atmospheres handled in hazardous locations.

    Spark discharges occur when releasing the accumulated static electricity through a spark gap in a flammable atmosphere.

    The ability of a spark to ignite a flammable atmosphere depends on its energy and duration. If the spark’s energy exceeds the minimum ignition energy (MIE) of a flammable mixture, the result will likely be a fire or explosion.

ESD Basics

  • What is an example of discharge static electricity?

    Static discharge is the release of static electricity when two objects touch each other.  Static discharge occurs when two charged surfaces pass over each other and a sudden recombination of the separated positive and negative charges creates an electric arc.

  • How do you dissipate the static charge that is generated?

    To prevent the build-up of static electricity and prevent sparks from causing a fire, it is important to bond metal dispensing and receiving containers together before pouring. Bonding is done by making an electrical connection from one metal container to the other.

  • What do ESD stands for?

    ESD stands for electrostatic discharge. Under certain conditions, transference of electrical potential may occur when two materials with different charges come into proximity to each other.

  • What is ESD protection?

    An ESD protection device protects a circuit from an Electrostatic discharge (ESD), in order to prevent a malfunction or breakdown of an electronic device.

  • What is ESD explain with example?

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the release of static electricity when two objects come into contact. Familiar examples of ESD include the shock we receive when we walk across a carpet and touch a metal doorknob and the static electricity we feel after drying clothes in a clothes dryer.

  • How can you prevent ESD?

    Parts can be damaged by electrostatic discharge. Follow these precautions:

    • Avoid hand contact by transporting and storing products in static-safe containers.
    • Keep electrostatic-sensitive parts in their containers until they arrive at static-protected workstations.
    • Place parts in a static-protected area before removing them from their containers.
    • Avoid touching pins, leads, or circuitry.
    • Always be properly grounded when touching a static-sensitive component or assembly.
    • Remove clutter (plastic, vinyl, foam) from the static-protected workstation.
  • What is ESD protection device?

    An ESD protection device protects a circuit from an Electrostatic discharge (ESD), in order to prevent a malfunction or breakdown of an electronic device.

  • Why we use ESD safety signs?

    In certain environments, static can cause major damage to sensitive instruments. Because of this, it’s important to notify visitors and workers of the precautions necessary for these areas with ESD Signs. These notifications are vital to the health and safety of these fragile workplaces.

  • What are ESD standards?

    The standard covers the requirements necessary to design, establish, implement, and maintain an ESD control program to protect electrical or electronic parts, assemblies and equipment susceptible to ESD damage from Human Body Model (HBM) discharges greater than or equal to 100 volts.

  • What is the ESD symbol?

    ESD Susceptibility Symbol

    The ESD Susceptibility Symbol is the most known symbol which consists of a yellow hand in the act of reaching, deleted by a bar; all within a black triangle. It is intended to identify devices and assemblies that are susceptible to ESD.

  • What causes Electrostatic discharge?

    When two electrically charged objects, such as the human body and an electronic device come into contact with each other, static electricity is discharged. This phenomenon is called ESD (Electrostatic Discharge). ESD generated from the human body can be of the order of several thousand volts.

  • How do you discharge an Electrostatic charge?

    The best way to prevent electrostatic discharge is by stopping potential from building in the first place. While it’s not possible to entirely neutralize every source of electrical charge in a working manufacturing plant, you can reduce the potential by following a few best practices:

    • Keep electronic equipment away from blowing air, as it increases electric accumulation. As such, any electronics assembly should be separated from fans and HVAC systems, and electronics should not be cleaned with compressed air.
    • Keep electronics away from plastics and other synthetic materials which accumulate electric charges.
    • Install a grounding system designed for low voltage dissipation. contact us for further information.
    • Treat floors, especially carpets and rugs, with anti-static compounds. Remove carpets and rugs where possible.

    In addition to following these guidelines, consider investing in equipment which is helpful for reducing electrostatic discharge.

    Equipment for Preventing Electrostatic Discharge

    Three primary pieces of equipment are necessary to prevent electrostatic discharge during manufacturing:

    • Electrostatic wrist and heel straps for tool operators
    • Electrostatic-safe tools
    • Anti-static floor mats

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